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Related post: Plate XIII-2
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MAP 13 - Geographic distribution of Entada abyssinica
- 89 -
1. BOTANICAL NAME: Erythrina americana Mill.
SYNONYMS: Erythrine carnea Ait. non Cost Of Clomiphene Blanco
Erythrina enneandra R.Br.
Erythrina fulgens Lois.
Coral lodendron aroericanum (Mill . )Kuntze
FAMILY: Leguminosae subfamily Papilionoideae
COMMON NAMES: Colorin, Gasparito, Pito, Madre mans a (Spanish); Tzompantlimazaixtle
"stage eye", Tzompanquahitl "tree of coral beads" (Aztec).
2. ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION
Erythrina americana occurs locally, probably on limestone, in the thorn forest belt,
around the edge of the Balsas basin in Morelos and adjoining Puebla, south to northeastern
and central Oaxaca to the headwaters of the Rio Buying Clomiphene Online Papalcapan (Puebla and Oaxaca) and just
across the divide to the edge of Veracruz Buy Clomiphene Online (Orizaba) at altitudes between 500 and 2500m.
An endemic of central Mexico (Veracruz, Hidalgo, Mexico and Federal District,
Morelos, TGuerrero, Puebla, Oaxaca) and probably introduced elsewhere in Mexico. Also
introduced into southern USA, Hawaii, Cuba, Europe and probably elsewhere (Krukoff and
Barnaby, 1974). (See distribution map.)
A small to medium sized tree up to 9m high, armed with spines; branches stout.
Leaves alternate, 3-foliate; stipules present; petiole 4.5-23cm long; terminal
leaflet larger, rhombic -ovate or rhombic-orbicular, 4.4-13cm long, 4.2-12cm wide, apex
acute or obtuse, base broadly cuneate or rounded or trucate, margins entire, subcoriaceous,
petiolules 5-llmm long. Inflorescence racemose; flowers showy, irregular; pedicels
2 -5mm long, bracts 0.9-2. 7mm long, 0.4-1. 3mm wide. Calyx campanulate or tubular-
campanulate, 9- 2 1mm long; petals bright red, standard narrowly elliptic, 46-8 4mm long,
7- 15mm wide, wings exceeding the keel petals, 11-1 9mm long, 2 -4mm wide; stamens 42-64mm Clomiphene 100 Mg
long, free for 10-26mm. Fruit a subwoody legume, 14-31cm long, 1.5-1. 9cm wide, shal lowly
to sometimes deeply constricted between the seeds, more or less straight; seeds 3-6,
scarlet with a black line extending from the hilum for l-2mm, ovoid, 10-15mm long, 6.5-9mm
wide (Krukoff, 1939).
The flowers appear with the leaves beginning of February.
The species is often confused with E. berteroana Urb., E. coralodendrum L. and
E. coralloides A. DC,, which are all known by the same common name "colorin".
4. ESTABLISHED MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL USES
It has been observed that intravenous injection of the alkaloids of Erythrina produces
paralysis of all the skeletal muscles. It has been ascertained that, as in the case of
curare, the paralyzing effect is the consequence of synaptic blockage of the nervous impulse
travelling towards the skeletal muscle. The central nervous Clomiphene Cost system is not involved. Unlike
curare, which is excreted in the urine, alkaloids of Erythrina are excreted in various ways
and the paralyzing effect is useful in various surgical procedures in which temporary but
effective muscular relaxation is required.
- 90 -
The mechanism of these substances is related to the chemical competence that they
establish as colinergic receivers with acetilcoline, the neurotransmitter of motor function.
It has also been demonstrated that beta-eritroidine competes with acetylcoline and
that its curare-like effect is inhibited if quaternization of the nitrogen in its molecule
is artificially modified. Eritroidine and its derivative dihydro-beta-eritroidine have
been used in medicine as muscular Buy Clomiphene Citrate relaxers, although their diffusion has not achieved the
necessary recognition. At present these compounds are used to assist relaxation in
anaesthesia for surgical purposes, since they enable excellent relaxation of the muscles,
particularly of the abdominal wall, to be obtained, and this in turn implies the use of
lower quantities of anaesthetics.
Research into relaxing drugs which are selective and block the ganglions continues in
the search for better drugs; the pharmacological Clomiphene 100mg properties of colorin therefore continue
to interest medical circles and it remains one of the products Clomiphene Citrate Buy potentially useful in the
medicine of the future. Cheap Clomiphene
5. FOLK MEDICINAL USES
The use of E. americana in medicine is the result of very recent studies, although
according to popular tradition its roots Clomiphene Citrat and leaves were used as sudorifics and its flowers
as expectorants. However, the use of E. americana for medicinal purposes began in the last
century owing to the study made of its seeds by Mexican doctors investigating the reasons
why the people considered them poisonous.
6. MAJOR CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT AND MEDICINAL PRODUCTS
The first record of this plant as a therapeutic resource appears in the Order Clomiphene Nueva
Farmacopea Mexicana of 1874. It was reported that alkaloids were present in colorin seeds,
in the form of an impure product called eritrocoraloidine. Later the alcoholic extract of
eritrocoraloidine was tested in experimental animals and it was concluded that the action
of this product was very similar to that of curare, it being observed that it produced
paralysis of the muscles without affecting the brain or the medulla. The term "Mexican
curare" was therefore used to refer to Erythrina and knowledge spread of the paralysing
properties of extracts of seeds of the species americana, coralloides and others. The
plant continues to interest Mexican scientific circles; the presence was reported of two
new alkaloids, eritroidine and corialine, to which paralysing properties were attributed.
Because the products obtained from E. americana and E. coralloides behaved in a similar
way to Amazonian curare, considerable chemical research into the various species of
Erythrina was carried out in other countries during the first half of the present century.
Some ten years ago, one of the alkaloids of Erythrina already described was isolated:
eritroidine, a crystalline and biologically active product extracted from the seeds of
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