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Related post: Plate XIII-2 branchlet bearing mature pods (Photo Ruffo) - 87 - MAP 13 - Geographic distribution of Entada abyssinica - 89 - 1. BOTANICAL NAME: Erythrina americana Mill. SYNONYMS: Erythrine carnea Ait. non Cost Of Clomiphene Blanco Erythrina enneandra R.Br. Erythrina fulgens Lois. Coral lodendron aroericanum (Mill . )Kuntze FAMILY: Leguminosae subfamily Papilionoideae COMMON NAMES: Colorin, Gasparito, Pito, Madre mans a (Spanish); Tzompantlimazaixtle "stage eye", Tzompanquahitl "tree of coral beads" (Aztec). 2. ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION Erythrina americana occurs locally, probably on limestone, in the thorn forest belt, around the edge of the Balsas basin in Morelos and adjoining Puebla, south to northeastern and central Oaxaca to the headwaters of the Rio Buying Clomiphene Online Papalcapan (Puebla and Oaxaca) and just across the divide to the edge of Veracruz Buy Clomiphene Online (Orizaba) at altitudes between 500 and 2500m. An endemic of central Mexico (Veracruz, Hidalgo, Mexico and Federal District, Morelos, TGuerrero, Puebla, Oaxaca) and probably introduced elsewhere in Mexico. Also introduced into southern USA, Hawaii, Cuba, Europe and probably elsewhere (Krukoff and Barnaby, 1974). (See distribution map.) 3. DESCRIPTION A small to medium sized tree up to 9m high, armed with spines; branches stout. Leaves alternate, 3-foliate; stipules present; petiole 4.5-23cm long; terminal leaflet larger, rhombic -ovate or rhombic-orbicular, 4.4-13cm long, 4.2-12cm wide, apex acute or obtuse, base broadly cuneate or rounded or trucate, margins entire, subcoriaceous, petiolules 5-llmm long. Inflorescence racemose; flowers showy, irregular; pedicels 2 -5mm long, bracts 0.9-2. 7mm long, 0.4-1. 3mm wide. Calyx campanulate or tubular- campanulate, 9- 2 1mm long; petals bright red, standard narrowly elliptic, 46-8 4mm long, 7- 15mm wide, wings exceeding the keel petals, 11-1 9mm long, 2 -4mm wide; stamens 42-64mm Clomiphene 100 Mg long, free for 10-26mm. Fruit a subwoody legume, 14-31cm long, 1.5-1. 9cm wide, shal lowly to sometimes deeply constricted between the seeds, more or less straight; seeds 3-6, scarlet with a black line extending from the hilum for l-2mm, ovoid, 10-15mm long, 6.5-9mm wide (Krukoff, 1939). The flowers appear with the leaves beginning of February. The species is often confused with E. berteroana Urb., E. coralodendrum L. and E. coralloides A. DC,, which are all known by the same common name "colorin". 4. ESTABLISHED MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL USES It has been observed that intravenous injection of the alkaloids of Erythrina produces paralysis of all the skeletal muscles. It has been ascertained that, as in the case of curare, the paralyzing effect is the consequence of synaptic blockage of the nervous impulse travelling towards the skeletal muscle. The central nervous Clomiphene Cost system is not involved. Unlike curare, which is excreted in the urine, alkaloids of Erythrina are excreted in various ways and the paralyzing effect is useful in various surgical procedures in which temporary but effective muscular relaxation is required. - 90 - The mechanism of these substances is related to the chemical competence that they establish as colinergic receivers with acetilcoline, the neurotransmitter of motor function. It has also been demonstrated that beta-eritroidine competes with acetylcoline and that its curare-like effect is inhibited if quaternization of the nitrogen in its molecule is artificially modified. Eritroidine and its derivative dihydro-beta-eritroidine have been used in medicine as muscular Buy Clomiphene Citrate relaxers, although their diffusion has not achieved the necessary recognition. At present these compounds are used to assist relaxation in anaesthesia for surgical purposes, since they enable excellent relaxation of the muscles, particularly of the abdominal wall, to be obtained, and this in turn implies the use of lower quantities of anaesthetics. Research into relaxing drugs which are selective and block the ganglions continues in the search for better drugs; the pharmacological Clomiphene 100mg properties of colorin therefore continue to interest medical circles and it remains one of the products Clomiphene Citrate Buy potentially useful in the medicine of the future. Cheap Clomiphene 5. FOLK MEDICINAL USES The use of E. americana in medicine is the result of very recent studies, although according to popular tradition its roots Clomiphene Citrat and leaves were used as sudorifics and its flowers as expectorants. However, the use of E. americana for medicinal purposes began in the last century owing to the study made of its seeds by Mexican doctors investigating the reasons why the people considered them poisonous. 6. MAJOR CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT AND MEDICINAL PRODUCTS The first record of this plant as a therapeutic resource appears in the Order Clomiphene Nueva Farmacopea Mexicana of 1874. It was reported that alkaloids were present in colorin seeds, in the form of an impure product called eritrocoraloidine. Later the alcoholic extract of eritrocoraloidine was tested in experimental animals and it was concluded that the action of this product was very similar to that of curare, it being observed that it produced paralysis of the muscles without affecting the brain or the medulla. The term "Mexican curare" was therefore used to refer to Erythrina and knowledge spread of the paralysing properties of extracts of seeds of the species americana, coralloides and others. The plant continues to interest Mexican scientific circles; the presence was reported of two new alkaloids, eritroidine and corialine, to which paralysing properties were attributed. Because the products obtained from E. americana and E. coralloides behaved in a similar way to Amazonian curare, considerable chemical research into the various species of Erythrina was carried out in other countries during the first half of the present century. Some ten years ago, one of the alkaloids of Erythrina already described was isolated: eritroidine, a crystalline and biologically active product extracted from the seeds of
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